This post is adapted from an original from 7 July 2010 at www.thinkingmatters.org.nz called “The Jesus of History: The 2nd & 3rd Quest (part 3)” Here I describe the second quest for the historical Jesus and why it wasn’t successful.
The Period of No Quest
The first half of the twentieth century saw the rise of the dialectical and existential schools of theology represented by Karl Barth and Rudolph Bultmann. For these men the quest for the historical Jesus was well over. Barth ignored the New Testament criticism of Jesus, for what mattered to him was the Christ of Faith proclaimed by the Church. The historical Jesus was, besides being inaccessible to investigation, theologically irrelevant and distracting.
Bultmann’s project of demythologization was characteristic of those who preceded him, but this time with surprisingly transparent naturalistic presuppositions. In his essay entitled “Is Exegesis Without Presuppositions Possible?” he argued that while scholars should not presuppose their results, there is nevertheless “one presupposition that cannot be dismissed” – that “history is a unity in the sense of a closed continuum of effects.” Bultmann explained that, “this closed-ness means that the continuum of historical happenings cannot be rent by the interference of supernatural, transcendent powers and that therefore there is no ‘miracle’ in this sense of the word.
For this project he developed the “form critical” method, to uncover the oral traditions that lay behind the earliest scriptural writing. The hope was for him to show that the gospel’s picture of Jesus was largely an invention of the early church. Of the historical Jesus he wrote “In my opinion, of the life of and personality of Jesus we can now know as good as nothing.” It did not matter to him though, for what was important was the truth expressed by the Christ-myth in the kerygma, the proclamation on the earliest church.
Picture by Xistenceimaginations at DeviantArt
The Second Quest
A new quest began with the disciples of Bultmann who were not content with the mere fact of Jesus’ existence as a ground for the Christian faith. The launch of the quest was a lecture delivered in 1953 by Ernst Käsemann (1906-1998) to his fellow students in Göttingen. There he selected sayings of Jesus he believed to be assuredly authentic and asked the question what impression do we get of Jesus’ proclamation and character. Redaction-criticism was born: its aim to discover the theological and literary tendencies of the authors of scripture. Others soon joined him in the quest.
James Robinson (1924-2016) distinguished between the Jesus of history and the historical Jesus. The Jesus of history was the actual person who lived, and the historical Jesus was the person who could be proved. The new quest, he says, was only concerned with the historical Jesus. Because of the presence of theology in the gospels, Robinson believed the burden of proof belonged to the one who would ascribe some attribute to Jesus, and not the one who denied it. Thus, if some feature of the historical Jesus could not be proved to be authentic, we should regard it as inauthentic. This presumption has been sharply criticised but lies behind much of New Testament scholarship today. More will latter be said on Robinson’s presumption and its effect on the criteria for authenticity.
John Meier (1942-), professor of New Testament at the University of Notre Dame, and author of the massive series A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus, makes a distinction similar to Robinson. To him the Jesus of history or the historical Jesus is a modern abstraction and construct of what can be recovered and examined using ‘the scientific tools of modern historical research.’ He uses those terms interchangeably, and contrasts them with what he calls the real Jesus, which is “a reasonably complete record of [his] public words and deeds.” On final analysis however, this is just another modern abstraction and construct: not a living, breathing person that is the subject of historical research, but a list of propositions. Craig notes a “third abstraction in the wings”  which Meier calls the total reality of Jesus. This is “everything he . . . ever thought, felt, experienced, did and said.” He concludes that assigning Jesus’ proper name to lists of propositions only leads to confusion, and muses that “one cannot help but wonder what has happened to the actual person Jesus of Nazareth.”
The energy with which the second quest was taken up had deflated by the seventies. But not for long. A third question would soon begin.
- R. Bultmann, “Is Exegesis Without Presuppositions Possible?” Existence and Faith: Short Writings of Rudolph Bultmann, ed. and trans. S. M. M. Ogden (New York: World, 1966), pp. 289-291. Cited in The Elusive Messiah: A Philosophical Overview of the Quest of the Historical Jesus, p. 42.
- Rudolph Bultmann, Jesus (Tubingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1951), p. 11.
- G. Bornkamm’s Jesus of Nazareth (1960), J. Jeremias, Jesus’ Promise to the Nation (1958), The Proclaimation of Jesus (1971), E. Schillebeeckx, Jesus: An Experiment in Christology (1979).
- See Morna Hooker, “On Using the Wrong Tool,” Theology 75 (1972): 570-81.
- John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew: vol. 1: The Roots of the Problem and the Person, Anchor Bible Reference Library (New York: Doubleday, 1991), 25.
- Ibid., 1:22.
- Reasonable Faith: Christian Truth and Apologetics, p. 291.
- A Marginal Jew: vol. 1: The Roots of the Problem and the Person, p. 21.
- Reasonable Faith: Christian Truth and Apologetics, p. 292.